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Electric Circuit: Definition, Types, Properties

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In this article you will learn a complete overview of electric circuits such as their definition, types, properties, uses, and much more.

All electric circuit wires follow the property of modulus of elasticity and ohms law.

What is Electric Circuit?

The medium which is required for electric current to flow is called an electric circuit.

Types of Electrical Circuits

What is Close Circuit?

The Electrical Circuit in which Electric Current (I) meets the Positive Point of the Supply Source through the Load Resistance (R) to the Negative Point of the Supply Source. And the circuit in which Electric Current can flow easily is called a Close Circuit.

(Supply source can mean Battery, Generator, or Electricity supply coming to our house.)

(Load Resistance ( R) means any Bulb, Fan, Refrigerator, Tube Light, Motor, Electric Heater, and every appliance that runs on electricity.)

Examples of Close Circuit:

  1. Turn on the lamp to give light.
  2. Heat the electric heater by heating it.
  3. To provide mechanical energy by rotating the electric motor.
  4. All these actions happen because of the Closed Circuit.

Types of Close Circuit

There are the following types of closed circuits:

  • Series Circuit
  • Parallel Circuit
  • Compound Circuit

Also read:

What is Series Circuit?

In which two or more resistances are connected in an Electrical Circuit. Out of which there is only one path in that circuit for current to flow, it is called Series Circuit.

The connection of all the load resistance of this circuit is done like a chain.

This means the second terminal point of the first resistance to the first terminal point of the second resistance.

The first terminal point of the first resistance and the second terminal point of the last resistance are used to supply.

Properties of Series Circuits

  1. There is only one path in the circuit for current to flow, and the entire current of the circuit passes through each resistance.
  2. According to Ohm’s law in each resistance, the voltage drop is as much as the multiplier of current and resistance.
  3. The sum of the voltage drop (VD) across each resistance is equal to the total supply voltage (V) given in that circuit.
  4. The total resistance of a circuit is equal to all the resistances in that circuit. Meaning, that when the number of resistance in the circuit increases, then the total resistance of the circuit also increases in the same way. According to Ohm’s principle, the total current in the circuit will also decrease.
  5. If any resistance is broken in the circuit or the circuit is opened from somewhere, then the entire circuit is closed by breaking the path of the current flow. Because of this, no single resistance of the series circuit can be controlled independently.
  6. When resistances of the same value are added to the series, then I × R, in this way everyone gets the same voltage, and all those resistances do the same job.
  7. If 2 resistances of the same Watt and Ohm are connected in series, the total power of the circuit is halved.

Use of Series Circuit

  1. Load Resistance of Low Voltage Rating To connect to the high Voltage supply.
  2. To reduce the total current of the circuit.
  3. To achieve the purpose by voltage drop at the required places.
  4. To decorate by adding to the Miniature Lamps Series of decorations.
  5. To add Over Load Coil.
  6. To add a multiplier to the Voltmeter.
    To increase the circuit voltage by adding a series of low voltage cells to the torch or battery.
  7. For reading current by adding an ammeter.

What is Parallel Circuit?

In which the number of load resistance is added to the Electrical Circuit. Equally, there are routes of current flowing in that circuit. It is called the Parallel Circuit.

If you look at this figure, you will find that each Load Resistance is connected to independent Positive and Negative Terminals coming from the supply source.

Properties of Parallel Circuit

  1. All load resistance gets an independent power supply.
  2. The voltage of the power supply and the voltage received by each resistance is the same.
  3. Current is divided in proportion to its value in each resistance.
  4. The total of the current flowing through each resistance is equal to the total current of that circuit.
  5. To find the total resistance of the circuit, the total conductance (G) is determined by adding all the conductances. And the total conductance has to change into the total resistance.
  6. As resistance is added to the circuit. In this way, the total resistance of the circuit decreases.
  7. The total resistance of a circuit is less than the resistance present in that circuit.

Use of Parallel Circuit

  1. Parallel Circuit is used in wiring. The wiring can be different types.
  2. Example:- House Wiring, Shop Wiring, Factory Wiring
  3. For connecting common home appliances and lamps.
  4. Add street lights.
  5. To add a shunt to the ammeter.
  6. To measure Voltage by adding a Voltmeter.

What is Compound Circuit?

The new Electrical Circuit formed by combining Series Circuit and Parallel Circuit is called Compound Circuit.

These types of circuits are not used in house wiring. Compound Circuits are used in the electronics sector. In this, some more resistances are added to their parallel by adding to some Load Resistance Series.

What is Open Circuit?

In which the Electric Circuit does not reach the Electric Current (I) of the supply source from Positive Point to Negative Point, the path of current flow gets opened somewhere due for some reason. That Circuit is called Open Circuit.

Examples of Open Circuit

Switching off the circuit or the contact of the switch is not being done properly.
Burning of Fuse Wire.
Close circuit wire breaks from somewhere.

What is Short Circuit?

The circuit in which the path of electric current flows is complete without load resistance, that is, the positive and negative points of the supply source, both of which connect to each other without minimum resistance, then that circuit is called a short circuit.

In a short circuit, there is no resistance in the flow of current, due to which more current starts flowing through that circuit than the limit. Because of this, the insulation of the wire starts melting after heating up. Sometimes there is even a possibility of fire. If there is a suitable fuse wire in such a circuit, then it gets heated and breaks down. And if MCB is working in that circuit then it gets operated. And converts that short circuit into an open circuit. And thus the accident or damage to that circuit can be avoided.

Related Terms:

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