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Switchgear And Protection: What is it? Types, Components?

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Switchgear and protection: A protection scheme is a comprehensive system to protect the various components used in an electrical system, including the whole system, from permanent damage in the event of an abnormal condition and to separate the defective part from the healthy (defect-free) part in a very efficient and accurate manner. Capacity has now been increased using extensively expanded systems to meet the growing power demand. Efficient use of switchgear and protective devices is essential to efficiently protect the system from errors in a timely manner with increased capacity.

What is switchgear?

Switchgear and protection is a switching system and control device. Switchgear does not mean any single object. It refers to the coexistence of equipment, which connects, disconnects, maintains, regulates, teaches and balances the normal functioning of electrical systems. It also refers to the coexistence of their own connection system and ancillary equipment.

Electrical power systems must be protected against damage caused by short circuits and other faults. Switchgear is used for this purpose, with the help of which the harmful effects can be kept under control. Moreover, the power system of a particular area can be turned ‘on’ or ‘off’ with the help of it in normal and abnormal conditions. Switchgear generally refers to the switching system, related regulating, protection, and measuring equipment, and the structure and connection of all those equipment.

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List of different types of switchgear and protection

According to the voltage, the switchgear can be divided into two parts, namely: low-voltage switchgear (LT Switchgear) and high-voltage switchgear (HT Switchgear).

According to the practical field, high voltage switchgear can be divided into two parts, namely: indoor type switchgear and outdoor type switchgear.

1. Indoor type switchgear: Considering the economic aspect, indoor type switchgear is used for voltage below 66 kV. Such switch gears are usually metal clad or metal clad type. These are well covered by Earth metal casing. Shown below is an indoor type switch gear;

Indoor type switchgear

2. Outdoor Type Switchgear: Outdoor type switchgear is used for voltages above 66 kV. Because the conductors used in high voltage switch gear, circuit breakers, switches, transformers, and other equipment need to keep more space, so using indoor equipment, in this case, is not effective. An outdoor type substation is shown below;

Outdoor Type Switchgear

List of components for switchgear and protection

Below is a list of different equipment used in switchgear-

1. Switch: (a) Isolator, (b) Air-break switch and (c) Oil Switch

2. Fuse:

(a) Low voltage fuse;

(i) Semi-enclosed rewireable fuse.

(ii) HRC cartridge fuse

(iii) HRC fuse with tripping device

(B) High voltage fuse;

(i) Cartridge type

(ii) Liquid type

(iii) Metal clad fuse

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3. Circuit Breaker:

(a) Air Circuit Breaker

(b) Oil Circuit Breaker

(c) Air Blast Circuit Breaker

(d) SF Circuit breaker

(e) Vacuum Circuit Breaker

4. Protective relay

Frequently Asked Questions

What is switchgear and protection?

Switchgear and protection is a switching system and control device.

What are the main types of switchgear?

There are two main types of switchgear.

How many and what are the main components of switch gear?

There are two main components of a switchgear. Namely-

1. Circuit breaker and

2. Relay.

What are the characteristics of good switchgear?

Characteristics of good switchgear are:

1. identification,

2. sensitivity,

3. faithfulness,

4. high speed,

5. Permanence and

6. Simplicity

How many kV indoor switchgear is used?

Indoor switchgear up to 66 kV is usually used.

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